Ice hockey


Ice hockey is a contact team sport played on ice, usually in a rink, in which two teams of skaters use their sticks to shoot a vulcanized rubber puck into their opponent’s net to score points. The sport is known to be fast-paced and physical, with teams usually consisting of six players each: one goaltender, and five players who skate up and down the ice trying to take the puck and score a goal against the opposing team.

Ice hockey is most popular in Canada, central and eastern Europe, the Nordic countriesRussia and the United States. Ice hockey is the official national winter sport of Canada. In addition, ice hockey is the most popular winter sport in BelarusCroatia, the Czech RepublicFinlandLatviaRussiaSlovakiaSweden, and SwitzerlandNorth America‘s National Hockey League (NHL) is the highest level for men’s ice hockey and the strongest professional ice hockey league in the world. The Kontinental Hockey League (KHL) is the highest league in Russia and much of Eastern Europe. The International Ice Hockey Federation (IIHF) is the formal governing body for international ice hockey, with the IIHF managing international tournaments and maintaining the IIHF World Ranking. Worldwide, there are ice hockey federations in 76 countries.


In England, field hockey has historically been called simply “hockey” and what was referenced by first appearances in print. The first known mention spelled as “hockey” occurred in the 1773 book Juvenile Sports and Pastimes, to Which Are Prefixed, Memoirs of the Author: Including a New Mode of Infant Education, by Richard Johnson (Pseud. Master Michel Angelo), whose chapter XI was titled “New Improvements on the Game of Hockey”. The 1573 Statute of Galway banned a sport called “‘hokie’—the hurling of a little ball with sticks or staves”. A form of this word was thus being used in the 16th century, though much removed from its current usage.

The belief that hockey was mentioned in a 1363 proclamation by King Edward III of England is based on modern translations of the proclamation, which was originally in Latin and explicitly forbade the games “Pilam Manualem, Pedivam, & Bacularem: & ad Canibucam & Gallorum Pugnam”. The English historian and biographer John Strype did not use the word “hockey” when he translated the proclamation in 1720, instead translating “Canibucam” as “Cambuck”; this may have referred to either an early form of hockey or a game more similar to golf or croquet.

According to the Austin Hockey Association, the word “puck” derives from the Scottish Gaelic puc or the Irish poc (to poke, punch or deliver a blow). “…The blow given by a hurler to the ball with his camán or hurley is always called a puck.”


  • Ice hockey rules define the parameters of the sport of ice hockey. The sport is governed by several organizations including the International Ice Hockey Federation (IIHF), the National Hockey League (NHL), Hockey CanadaUSA Hockey and others. The rules define the size of the hockey rink where a game is played, the playing and safety equipment, the game definition, including time of play and whether tie-breaking methods are used and the actual playing rules themselves. The IIHF rule book is used in both amateur and professional leagues worldwide. The NHL’s rule book is the basis for the rule books of most North American professional leagues. The IIHF, amateur and NHL rules evolved separately from amateur and professional Canadian ice hockey rules of the early 1900s.Hockey Canada rules define the majority of the amateur games played in Canada. USA Hockey defines the same for the United States (US). US high school leagues use the National Federation of State High School Associations rule book, and varsity college hockey is governed by the National Collegiate Athletic Association‘s rules.Hockey Canada and USA Hockey’s rule books differ primarily in technical matters such as the severity of penalties handed out for various fouls. IIHF rules differ a bit more due to the differences in the dimensions of North American hockey rinks from those in the rest of the world. In recent times, both USA Hockey and Hockey Canada have been trying to make their rules more similar to the international rules. The merits of this move toward a more standardized rule book, however, are debated in amateur hockey circles.

    In recent years, the low scores of NHL games have prompted the league to debate a wide variety of rule change proposals including enlarging the size of the goal, widening the blue and red lines to create a larger offensive zone, restricting where goaltenders can handle the puck, breaking ties with a penalty shot shootout, and eliminating the two-line pass rule.

    The National Hockey League rules are the rules governing the play of the National Hockey League (NHL), a professional ice hockey organization. Infractions of the rules, such as offside and icing, lead to a stoppage of play and subsequent to the offending teams. The league also determines the specifications for playing equipment used in its games.

    The rules are one of the two standard sets of ice hockey rules in the world. The rules themselves have evolved directly from the first organized indoor ice hockey game in Montreal in 1875, updated by subsequent leagues up to 1917, when the league adopted the existing National Hockey Association set of rules. While designed to govern play of games organized by the league, the NHL’s rules are the basis for rules governing most ice hockey leagues in North America.

    The rules differ slightly from the rules used in international games organized by the International Ice Hockey Federation (IIHF) such as the Olympics (the NHL rules, however, are used in the World Cup of Hockey). The IIHF rules are themselves also based on Canadian rules of ice hockey dating back to the early 20th Century. The NHL and IIHF differ in the treatment of fighting and in playing rules, such as icing, the areas of play for goaltenders, helmet rules, officiating rules, timeouts and play reviews.


  • International Ice Hockey Federation (IIHF)
  • National Hockey League (NHL)



gordie howe

mario Lemieux

wayne gretzky